SAP Client Concept

Client Concepts and Types of Data in SAP System

Data in an SAP system can be divided into two categories:

1. Client-specific data: Client-specific data such as user master and application data, which affects only one client.
2. Cross-client data: Cross-client data such as cross-client customizing data and all Repository
objects, which affects the whole system environment.

The ABAP Dictionary is a data dictionary that is part of the ABAP Repository. Each piece of the ABAP Dictionary information is entered only once and is then available anywhere in the system at any time. The ABAP Dictionary automatically supplies all new or changed information, thus providing current runtime objects and ensuring data consistency and security.

A client is a self contained unit in technical terms, wit its own master data.

The following are examples of client-specific data:
User master data, such as parameters, authorization, user groups

Customizing data, such as organizational units, assignments, and document types

Application data, such as business transaction data, and material master data

The SAP client concept can integrate several companies or subsidiaries in a single client by using company codes and the SAP authorization concept. Company codes define the smallest corporate organizational units for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for external reporting.
The SAP authorization concept enables the parent company to access all subsidiaries for report purposes, while subsidiary-specific data is protected against access from other subsidiaries through company code definition.

The standard client roles fulfill the optimal minimum requirements of your SAP system.

Client CUST, development and customizing, is the central customizing client where complete adaptation of the SAP system to customer-specific needs takes place. All changes performed in this client are recorded so they can be supplied to the other clients using the Transport Management System.

Client QST, quality assurance, is used to test and verify the new customizing settings in the application.

Client PRD or production is the client for production activities, that is, where your company’s business is carried out. Customizing changes imported into this client have to be first tested carefully in the QST client in order to ensure that production operation is free of disruption.

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